Luxembourg passport in world's top three most powerful
A Luxembourgish passport remains one of the most powerful in the world, offering visa-free access to 189 countries, according to the latest ranking published by the Henley Passport Index.
The country moved up one place in this year's ranking from fourth in 2020. A passport from the Grand Duchy has featured in the global top four annually since 2017 and has never dropped lower than sixth since the list was first compiled in 2006.
Only four countries in this year's ranking - Germany and South Korea in joint second, and Japan and Singapore, which share top spot - offer easier access to more destinations.
Luxembourg shares third place with three other EU countries; Italy, Spain and Finland.
The Henley Passport Index lists countries according to data provided by the International Air Transport Authority (IATA) and bases its ranking "according to the number of destinations their holders can access without a prior visa".
Luxembourg has recognised dual nationality for more than a decade, under a law which came into force in January 2009. Anyone wishing to become a citizen must pass a Luxembourgish language test, the Sproochentest, comprising a spoken and listening exam. A score of at least 50% on the spoken test is required to pass, although the result in the listening exam can be offset against it.
A recent petition urging the government to drop the obligation to learn Luxembourgish and instead offer the citizenship exam in French or German failed to obtain enough signatures.
An adult who has been living in the Grand Duchy for 20 years can apply for citizenship by taking 24 hours of Luxembourgish language lessons, although a public petition launched in September calls on the government to reduce that timeframe to 10 years. However, the appeal has attracted just over 200 signatures to date, way below the 4,500 required to force a debate in parliament.